KiwiEnzyme© KEP40

KEP40 (Kiwifruit Extract Powder) for Meat Tenderising, Protein Hydrolysis

Example usage: Tender Beef Portions with KiwiEnzyme©

According to industry data, of the range of meat cuts that can be produced from a beef carcass only 10% by weight is graded as prime tender meat. The other 90% of the carcass produces meat cuts that are generally tougher, requiring longer, slow cooking regimes to achieve a satisfactory eating quality. Over cooking can have a detrimental effect on other qualities such as juiciness and flavour.

The tenderness of meat cuts derived from older animals typically decreases with age. As the beef animal ages changes in muscle structure result in a tougher texture more suited to manufacturing grade and processed meat products or roast beef cooking regimes.

This presents a great opportunity for value-added processing of meat cuts for both the consumer and food service markets; to improve returns to the meat processor and an enhanced eating experience for the consumer, while providing a valuable nutritional source. The application of enzyme marinades based on KiwiEnzyme© KEP kiwifruit extracts containing the protease Actinidin offer economic options for large scale tenderizing of meat products.

Benefits of Actinidin in KiwiEnzyme© KEP Extracts

Actinidin has significant advantages over other enzyme products, such as Papain and bacterial proteases:

  • a lower temperature for deactivation, closer to target cook temperatures; limits the potential for over-tenderizing.
  • the presence of meat protein confers stability on the Actinidin, reducing self hydrolysis.
  • KEP / marinade solutions have demonstrated excellent enzyme stability providing good operational flexibility.
  • hydrolysis of meat protein is reported to activate Actinidin further enhancing the hydrolysis action on meat protein.
  • Actinidin is stable to freezer storage; injected meat portions can be stored frozen then thawed / tempered for subsequent consumption.

KEP Enzyme Marinades

KEP is blended with a salt / flavor marinade dry mix. The salt mix is generally a blend of sodium chloride, sodium polyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate, to provide both flavor enhancement and water holding capacity.

The application of enzyme marinades requires multi-needle injection followed by tumbling to achieve uniform distribution; tumbling alone will produce variable surface tenderizing with poor textural quality and tough inner layers.

The concentration of KEP applied to the marinade will be influenced by the grade of meat being injected. Local food regulations may limit the injection rate of marinade solution that is permitted.

Cooking Regimes

Large meat portions (1.5 – 3.0kg) are tenderized as the temperature of the portion rises from chilled to the target cook temperature; cook time 1 – 2 hours. A medium-rare condition for beef correlates with a core temperature of 70° – 75°C at which point the Actinidin is terminated.

Beef steak portions typically require short cook times that are insufficient to achieve full tenderizing. A pre-cook at 50° – 55°C for 30 – 40 minutes achieves effective tenderizing. This pre-cook stage is the basis for a widely used method known as Sous-vide.

Product Description

Description: An extract of New Zealand Kiwifruit providing a standardized activity of the proteolytic enzyme Actinidin.

Appearance: Cream-coloured, free-flowing powder

Particle Size: 100% less than 850 microns

Solubility in Water: Readily soluble

Packaging: 10kg net weight, PE liner in metallised PES bags, vacuum-packed. Cardboard outer

Shelf Life: The product is stable for a minimum of 24 months at ambient temperature, vacuum packed. Once opened the product must be protected from moisture.

Product Application

The active ingredient in KiwiEnzyme© Kiwifruit Extract Powder is the protease Actinidin. The pH optimum and activity / temperature profile of Actinidin are keys to the products effectiveness.

For applications such as meat tenderizing:

Activity is optimal at physiological pH (6.0 – 6.5) Temperature is optimal at 50°C:

  • enables tenderizing at low holding temperatures
  • avoids over tenderizing at higher (cooking) temperatures

These properties offer a significant advantage over competing proteases such as those derived from bacterial sources and other plant proteases such as Papain. Many of these products are terminated at high temperatures which can result in over tenderizing.

By utilising a combination of holding temperature and time interval the tenderizing process can be applied to a range of meat portions:

For large meat portions (e.g. corned beef, beef roast, whole poultry carcass) the injected enzyme marinade performs its tenderizing effect during the cooking process over 1 to 2 hours, as the temperature rises from chilled (<5°) to the final cook temperature (>70°C) at which point the Actinidin has been terminated.

For small portions (e.g. beef steaks, chicken thighs) the cook phase is too short to allow the tenderizing process to operate. A tempering stage is required during which the portion is either held at ambient temperature for several hours, or undergoes a low temperature pre-cook (< 50°C), to activate the tenderizing process.

Actinidin is stable to freezing. Injected meat portions may be stored frozen for extended periods prior to cooking. The tenderizing action commences as the portion thaws.